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Bibliography - updated 14/10/17

Full Length Works

Bell, R. & Rodwell, K., Acton Court: the evolution of a Tudor Courtiers House, English Heritage, 2004

Champion, M., Medieval Graffiti: the lost voices of England's churches, Ebury Press, 2015

Fleming, J., Graffiti and the Writing Arts of Early Modern England, Reaktion Books, 2001

Hine, R.,  Relics of an Un-Common Attorney, London: Dent, 1951 (inc. a whole chapter on church graffiti)

Oliver, J. & Neal, T., (eds) Wild Signs: Graffiti in Archaeology and History, BAR International Series 2074, 2010

Pacey, A., Medieval Architectural Drawing, Tempus, 2007

Pritchard, V., English Medieval Graffiti, CUP, 1967

Rodwell, W., The Archaeology of Churches, Amberley Publishing, new edition 2012 (several pages dedicated to graffiti)


Peregrinations: Journal of Medieval Art and Architecture 6, 1 (2017)


Alexander, J., 'Masons marks and stone buildings', in Tatton-Brown, T. & Munby, J. (eds), The Archaeology of Cathedrals, Oxford Uni. Committee for Archaeology, Monograph No.42, 1996

Alexander, J., 'Mason's marks and the working practices of medieval stone masons', in Barnwell, P.S. & Pacey, A., Who Built Beverley Minster, Spire Books, 2008

Atkinson, T. D., On some consecration crosses in East Anglian churches, Proceedings of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, 11 (1906), pp. 255 – 262

Bailey, J., Medieval Widow Sketch found at Dartford, Holy Trinity, Church Archaeology 1, 1997

Baker, K., Gargoyles and Graffiti: chimeres, creatures and curiosities, Thaxted Church Series, Thaxted PCC, 2006

Barker, P. & Harrison, S., ‘Byland Abbey, North Yorkshire; the west front and rose window reconstructed’, Journal of the British Archaeological Association, CXL, 1987,

Blatchly, J. & Northeast, P., Discoveries in the clerestorey and roof structure of St Margarets church Ipswich, Proc. of the Suffolk Inst. 1996

Boulter, S., Graffiti on the tower roof of St Michael, Cookley, Church Archaeology 4, 2000

Brady, K. & Corlett, C., Holy Ships: Ships on Plaster at Medieval Ecclesiastical Sites in Ireland, Archaeology Ireland, Vol. 18, No. 2 (Summer, 2004), pp. 28 - 31

Bryan, P. & Tovey, S., Unlocking the evidence - recording the historic graffiti of the great tower, Research News 12, 2009

Buglass, J., Comments of the Ship Graffiti in Robinson, T., 2014, All At Sea in Ribblesdale. Yorkshire Buildings. The Journal of the Yorkshire Vernacular Buildings Study Group. No 41(2013)

Champion, M., Medieval Graffiti Inscriptions found in All Saints Church, Litcham, Norfolk Archaeology XLVI, 2011, pp.199-208

Champion, M., Medieval Window Sketch found at All Saints, Weston Longville, Norfolk Archaeology XLVI, 2012, pp.383–6

Champion, M., Tracery Designs at Binham Priory, English Heritage Historical Review, Vol. 6, 2011, pp.6-21

Champion, M., The medium is the message: votive devotional imagery and gift giving amongst the commonality in the late medieval parish, Peregrinations: Journal of Medieval Art & Architecture, 2012

Champion, M., Reading the Writing on the Wall: The Norfolk Medieval Graffiti Survey, Current Archaeology 22 (no.256), 2011

Champion, M., Walls have ears, noses, ships: the Norfolk Medieval Graffiti Survey, Cornerstone: the journal of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, Vol. 32, no.2, 2011

Champion, M., Grand Designs Revealed: the Binham Priory Graffiti Inscriptions, Cornerstone: the journal of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, Vol. 32, no.1, 2012

Champion, M., Ecclesiastical Etchings; the graffiti of Norwich Cathedral, Current Archaeology (no. 277), April 2013

Champion, M., The Graffiti Inscriptions of St Mary’s Church, Troston, Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology, Vol. 43, no.2, 2014

Champion, M., Late Medieval Painted Decoration at St Edmunds Church, Acle, Norfolk Archaeology, XLVI, 2013, pp.462-6

Champion, M., Ill wishing on the walls: late medieval graffiti curses from Norwich cathedral, Norfolk Archaeology, XLVI, 2014, pp.61-6

Champion, M., Architectural Inscriptions: New Discoveries in East Anglia, Church Archaeology, Vol. 16, 2012, pp.65-80

Champion, M., Blackfriars Barn Undercroft, Winchelsea, East Sussex: Graffiti Survey Record, Unpublished National Trust report, 2012

Champion, M., St Benet’s Abbey, Norfolk: Graffiti Survey Record, Unpublished Norfolk Archaeological Trust report, 2012

Champion, M., Knole House: Graffiti Survey and Interpretation, Unpublished National Trust Report, 2013

Champion, M., ‘Medieval Graffiti Artists were ‘ere’: Norwich Cathedral Graffiti’, Cornerstone: the journal of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, Vol. 33, no.1, 2013

Champion, M., Knole House: The Outer Wicket - Graffiti Survey and Interpretation, Unpublished National Trust Report, 2014

Champion, M., Fan Bay Deep Shelter, Dover: Graffiti Survey and Interpretation, Unpublished National Trust Report, 2014

Champion, M., The South Porch, St Nicholas Chapel, Kings Lynn: Graffiti Survey and Interpretation, Unpublished Churches Conservation Trust Report, 2013

Champion, M., Medieval Ship Graffiti in English Churches: Interpretation and Function, The Mariners Mirror, Journal of the Society for Nautical Research, 2015

Champion, M., 'Ritual Protection Marks in Medieval Churches' in Hutton, R., (ed) The Physical Evidence for Ritual Acts, Sorcery and Witchcraft in Christian Britain: A Feeling for Magic, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016

Champion, M., Bodiam Castle, Sussex - Graffiti Survey and Interpretation, Unpublished National Trust Report, 2016

Champion, M., The Priest, the Prostitute, and the Slander on the Walls: Shifting Perceptions Towards Historic Graffiti, Peregrinations Journal of Medieval Art and Architecture 6, 1 (2017): 5-37. http://digital.kenyon.edu/perejournal/vol6/iss1/20

Champion, M., 'Ship graffiti in East Anglian churches: a reflection of Maritime Interventions?' in Six Essays in Hanseatic History; the proceedings of the Hans Symposium 2015, Poppyland Publishing, 2017

Champion, M., 'Medieval Graffiti' in The Oxford Handbook of Late Medieval Archaeology, Oxford University Press (forthcoming 2018)

Champion, M., 'Defence Against the Dark Arts: Ritual Protection Marks in Medieval Churches' (forthcoming 2018)

Christensen, A. E. Ship graffiti and Models, Miscellanea I, 1987

Cohen, N. & Champion, M., ‘Victory Graffiti in the Undercroft?’, National Trust: Arts, Buildings, Collections Bulletin, February 2013

Cohen, N., "Scratches and Storytelling: Graffiti and interpretation at National Trust sites in Kent and East Sussex, England." Peregrinations: Journal of Medieval Art and Architecture 6, 1 (2017): 119-131. http://digital.kenyon.edu/perejournal/vol6/iss1/24

Coulton, G. G., Medieval Graffiti, Proceedings of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, Vol. XIX, 1915

Crook, J., ‘New light on the history of St Mary’s Church, Old Basing, Hampshire: an incised design for a post-medieval window’, Journal of the British Archaeological Association, CLIV, 2001

Duck, J., The profane and the sacred: Expressions of belief in the domestic buildings of southern Fenland, 1500-1700 AD, unpublished PhD thesis, Uni. of Leicester, 2015

Easton, T., Ritual Marks on Historic Timber, The Mortice and Tenon 7, (Spring) 1998

Easton, T., Ritual Marks on Historic Timber, Weald and Downland Museum, Spring 1999

Easton, T., ‘Scribed and Painted Symbols’ in The Encyclopaedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World, Cambridge University Press (1998)

Easton, T., The use of conjoined Vs to protect a dwelling, Proc. Univ. Bristol Spelaeological Soc. 23, 2004

Easton, T., Candle Power (candle soot markings on historic buildings), Cornerstone: the journal of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, Vol. 32, no.4, 2011

Easton, T., Burning Issues (ritual burn markings on historic buildings), Cornerstone: the journal of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, Winter 2012

Easton, T. & Hodgkinson, J., Apotropaic Symbols on Cast-iron Firebacks, Journal of the Antique Metalware Society, Vol. 21, 2013

Easton, T., Plumbing a Spiritual World (markings on lead), SPAB magazine, Winter 2013

Easton, T., Portals of Protection (markings on doors), SPAB magazine, Winter 2014

Easton, T., 'Apotropaic symbols and other measures for protecting buildings against misfortune', in Hutton, R., (ed) The Physical Evidence for Ritual Acts, Sorcery and Witchcraft in Christian Britain: A Feeling for Magic, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016

Emden, A. B., Graffiti of medieval ships from the Church of St Margaret at Cliffe, Kent, The Mariners Mirror: Journal of the Society for Nautical Research 8, 1922

Ewing, W. C. 'Notices of the Merchant's Marks in the city of Norwich', Norfolk Arch (1850)

Fearn, A., "A Light in the Darkness – the Taper Burns of Donington le Heath Manor House."Peregrinations: Journal of Medieval Art and Architecture 6, 1 (2017): 92-118. http://digital.kenyon.edu/perejournal/vol6/iss1/23

Fletcher, T., Loader, N. J. & Robertson, I., A hidden medieval door and graffiti at the church of SS Mary and Andrew, Whittlesford, Cambridgeshire, Church Archaeology 12, 2008

Gaimster, M., ‘Medieval Graffito from Bermondsey Abbey’, London Archaeologist, Vol. 11, No.8 (2007)

Gardiner, M., Graffiti and their use in Late Medieval England, Ruralia, Vol. 6, Turnhout Brepols (2007), pp. 265 – 276

Girling, F. A. English Merchants Marks, OUP, 1964

Gordon, A., The Act of Libel: Conscripting Civic Space in Early Modern England, Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 32:2, Spring 2002.

Graves, P. & Rollason, L., The Medieval Prior’s Chapel at Durham: its development and use, Monastic Research Bulletin 16, 2010

Graves, P. & Rollason, L., The Monastery of Durham and the Wider World: Medieval Graffiti in the Prior's Chapel, Northern History, L :2, September 2013

Gurney, D., World War Two Tree Graffiti at Honingham, Norfolk Archaeology XLVI, 2012, pp.231-232

Harley, L. S., Graffiti in Essex, The Essex Naturalist, Vol. 29, 1952

Hine, R., “Church graffiti”, The Ely Diocesan Gazette, vol. 1, no. 12, December 1916, pp. 156-160.

Hine,R., “Church graffiti”, Lincolnshire Notes and Queries, vol. 14, no. 113, January 1917, pp. 133-144.

Hine, R., “Graffiti in Letchworth church”, Letchworth Newspaper, 4 November, 1921.

Hiscott, R., Graffiti: Scratching below the Surface, The friends of Beverely Minster 75th Annual Report, 2011, pp.25-27

Hollis, C., "Medieval Milwaukee: Unlikely Graffiti at the St. Joan of Arc Chapel." Peregrinations: Journal of Medieval Art and Architecture 6, 1 (2017): 132-146. http://digital.kenyon.edu/perejournal/vol6/iss1/25

Hooper, B., A possible 13th century depiction of St George in Eastwood church, Essex, Church Archaeology 7,8,9, 2005

Jones, A., All Saints Church Archaeological Recording of the tower roof graffiti, Suffolk CC Arch Serv. unpublished report, 2001

Jones, H. A., Some C19th ship graffiti at Northbourne, Kent Archaeology Review 81, 1985

Jones-Baker, D., Graffiti at the old tannery house, Whitwell, Hertfordshire Archaeology 1, 1968

Jones-Baker, D., The Graffiti of Folk Motifs in Cotswold Churches, Folklore, Vol. 92, No. 2 (1981), pp. 160-167

Jones-Baker, D., `Graffito of medieval music in the Tresaunt, Windsor Castle' Antiquaries Journal 64, 1984

Jones-Baker, D., Graffito of a Danish or Viking ship, church of St Mary, Stow-in-Lindsey, Lincolnshire, Antiquaries Journal 66, 1986

Jones-Baker, D., The graffiti of England’s medieval churches and cathedrals, Churchscape 6, 1987

Jones-Baker, D., Medieval and Tudor Music and Musicians in Hertfordshire: the graffiti evidence in Hertfordshire in History, University of Herts, 2004

Jones-Baker, D., Makers Marks engraved in graffito on English Medieval and Post-Medieval Tombs and other Funeral Monuments, The Antiquaries Journal 76, 1996

Jones-Baker, D., English Medieval Graffiti, The Local Historian 23, (Feb) 1993,

Jones-Baker, D., The chicester cathedral graffiti, medieval and post medieval and verbal inscriptions largely in the Lady Chapel, (unpublished) 2005

Kahanov, Y. & Stern, E., Ship Graffiti from Akko (Acre), Mariners Mirror, 2008

Kastholm, O. T., Six ship graffiti from Himmelev Church, Maritime Archaeology Newsletter from Denmark 26, Summer 2011

Laurie C.C. Stanley-Blackwell and John D. Blackwell, “Graffiti and Sacred Spaces:Holy Trinity Anglican Church, Dorchester, N.B.”, Acadiensis, XXVIII, 1 (Autumn 1998), pp. 66-75.

Le Pard, G., Graffiti of sailing ships in a Purbeck quarry, Dorset Nat Hist and Arch Soc. 126. 2005

Macalister, R. A., Graffiti representing ships on the wall of Moyne Priory, County Mayo, Journal of the Royal Soc of Ant. of Ireland 73, 1943

Maclean, J., The Armory and Merchants Marks in the Ancient Church of Cirencester, Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, Vol. 17, 1892-3, pp.268-321

Meeson, B., Ritual Marks and Graffiti: Curiosities or Meaningful Symbols?, Vernacular Architecture Vol. 36, 2005, pp.41-48

Montague Benton, G., “Medieval graffiti in Steeple Bumstead and other Essex churches”, Transactions of Essex Archaeology Society, 17, pt. 4, 1925, pp. 1-8

Montague Benton, G., Graffiti in Essex: Some further examples, The Essex Naturalist,

Moore, P. & Palmer, N., Church of St John the baptist, Middleton - Arch recording of graffiti on roof, Unpublished Warwickshire museums report, 1993

Moss, N. & Wallis, H., Recording of the masonry of the Great Arch in The Bigod Tower, and other decorative features within Norwich Castle, NAU unpublished report, 2001

Pavitt, M., Medieval and other Graffiti, Gamlingay: friends of St Mary’s, 1998

Peake, J., ‘Graffiti and Devotion in Three Maritime Churches’ in Heslop, T.A., Mellings, E., Thofner, M., (eds), Art, Faith and Place in East Anglia: from Prehistory to the Present, Boydell, 2012

Pritchard, V., `Some English medieval ship graffiti', Mariners Mirror 73, 1987

Ramsey, N., Medieval Graffiti at Vale Royal Abbey, Cheshire, Medieval archaeology, art and architecture at Chester; British Archaeology Association (2000)

Richardson, S., 'The Archaeological Recording of Graffiti in Yorkshire'. Archaeological Forum Journal: CBA Yorkshire 2 (2013)

Rushbridger, G. H., Medieval Graffiti in some Buckinghamshire churches, Record of Buckinghamshire 20, 1980

Salmon, E. F., Masons and other incised marks in New Shoreham Church, Sussex Archaeological Collections XLVIII, 1905

Schofield, J., Graffiti at St Pauls: the cleaning and repair of the west end of the cathedral, 2003-5, London Archaeologist, Vol. 11 (2006)

Sherlock, D., Ashwell Church, Medieval Drawings and Writings, Ashwell Parish Church, 1978

Short, R. H. D., Graffiti on the Reredos of the Lady Chapel of Gloucester Cathedral, Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, Vol. LXVII, 1946

Smith, E., 'Damaged by wanton mischief: graffiti on the Coronation chairs', in Rodwell, W., The Coronation Chair and Stone of Scone: History, Archaeology and Conservation, Westminster Abbey Occasional Papers (series 3), no.2, Oxbow, 2013

Smith, L., Compass, cut circle and Daisy wheel, The Mortice and Tenon 5, (Spring) 1993

Spicer, A., 'To show that the place is divine: consecration crosses revisited', in Kodres, K. & Mand, A. (eds), Images and Objects in Ritual Practices in Medieval and Early Modern Northern and Central Europe, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2013

Stevenson, W. B. 'Medieval Identification marks and their survival in Scotland', Trans. Glasgow Arch. Soc. (1954)

Tesseyman, H., 'Medieval graffiti' - an investigation into the historic inscription of four churches in the East Riding of Yorkshire, unpublished BA thesis, University of Hull, 2016

Turner, G. S. R. Bahamian Ship Graffiti, Texas A & M University, Unpublished MA Thesis (2004)

Walsh, P., 'The Medieval Merchant's Mark and its survival in Galway', Journal of the Galway Archaeological and Historical Soc., Vol. 45 (1993)

White, A. J., Carvings of ships in Whitby parish church, Folk Life 28, 1990

Williams, R., "Monsters, Masons, and Markers: An overview of the graffiti at All Saints Church, Leighton Buzzard." Peregrinations: Journal of Medieval Art and Architecture 6, 1 (2017): 38-64. http://digital.kenyon.edu/perejournal/vol6/iss1/21

Wood, F. C., Medieval Graffiti at New Shoreham, St Mary de Haura (http://shoreham.adur.org.uk/st_mary_graffiti.htm)

Woodhead, C., "A Special Class of Prisoner: Graffiti at Winchester’s Westgate." Peregrinations: Journal of Medieval Art and Architecture 6, 1 (2017): 65-91. http://digital.kenyon.edu/perejournal/vol6/iss1/22

Wright, J., Cultural anxieties and ritual protection in high-status early modern houses, Proceedings of the Hidden Charms conference 2016, Northern Earth Books, 2017